Canine parvovirus THE DOG

Canine parvovirus is a disease in dogs That Is Important Because It Causes of high mortality in the population and cause high economic losses, ESPECIALLY in the commercial dog breeding and animal husbandry.

The disease is Caused by Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Including within the family Parvoviridae. CPV is transmissible virus without an envelope, has a single-chain nucleic acid, the positive polarization and a diameter of 20-28 nm.

Disease transmission is usually played through two channels, namely the mouth, anus and the placental barrier. After experiencing some replication in primary lymphoid organs as thymus , the virus then spread to Various organs through the Bloodstream, Such as the tonsils and small intestine with great severity in the lymphoid organs.

Experiments in the laboratory, viremia can be detected on day 1 and 2 Followed by viremia after infection of day-to-3 to-5 post-infection. Virus excretion usually starts on day-3 post-infection accompanied by the appearance of antibodies on day 4 and reached a maximum concentration at day-7 post-infection. Increased serum antibody has a huge impact on the reduction of virus excretion and recovery of individual health.

Geographical Distribution
CFV infections in dogs are found in many countries in the world, since the incidence of outbreaks in Australia and the United States in mid-1978.

Modes of Transmission
Transmission through oral-anal pathway is most common, the which may be the result of contact with contaminated materials Such as cages, clothes, feces and soil. In experimental infections can also be generated through the mouth, intubation, nasal passages, blood vessels and intra-uterine.

Morbidity and Mortality
CPV enteritis Generally high morbidity but low mortality. In young dogs the mortality can reach 10-12% or 50%. In the adult dog 1-2%.
At the CPV myocarditis in the early emergence reached 50%, reduction in morbidity and mortality from CPV myocarditis Caused by high titers of antibodies in pregnant animals That may Prevent them from infection. The more the parent WHO has a high antibody titer then the fewer cases of infection arising in young dogs.

Clinical symptoms of
Clinical symptoms the the which may Arise from the disease known as dengue two types of enteritis and myocarditis nonsupuratif. Sudden death in dogs younger than 8 weeks is the most common clinical symptoms found in cases of acute nonsuppurative myocarditis. Sub-acute heart failure accompanied by respiratory problems and is Often accompanied by death within 24-48 hours can occur in dogs over the age of 8 weeks. In dogs teens and adults can occur with congestive heart failure the heart muscle damage.

Based on severity, CPV enteritis Divided into 3 types of moderate, acute and Parachute. Diarrhea and vomiting accompanied by a distinctive odor and bleeding is a symptom That Often found in most people with dogs. Other symptoms of lethargy, Decreased appetite, leucopenia, fever and dehydration.
In Patients per acute death can occur Immediately, while the case is Likely to occur within Several weeks of healing. Overall infection symptoms are similar to ataxic syndrome in cats, but it Happens very rare.

The disease is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, pathological, identification and determination of virus-specific antibody.
In the laboratory, virus identification is Carried out through the use of existing Various methods Such as histopathology, virus isolation in cell cultures, hem agglutination tests, immune dyes, electron microscopy, ELISA test and molecular breeding.

While the serological methods used to diagnose CPV barriers include hem agglutination test, radial hemolytic, neutralization, fluorescence, radio immune, complement fixation and immune precipitation and ELISA.

Prevention and Eradication
Excessive diarrhea and vomiting is very bad for the animals affect people with CPV enteritis. Often dogs die of dehydration. Provision of physiologic saline solution and sugar will help the patient to pass through a critical period in the which usually Lasts 2-5 days.

Provision of vitamins and good nutrition, the placement of Patients in the room is warm and comfortable as well as giving antibiotics to Overcome a secondary infection is recommended.
Prevention is done through the disinfection of contaminated equipment and materials, improving the nutritional status and health of animals as well as the implementation of Immunization programs on a regular basis. The use of formaldehyde, phenol and Na-hypochlorite for Fumigation or spraying can Reduced new infections.

Leptospirosis in Dogs

Other names: typhus dog, Stuttgart disease, Infectious Jaundice

Infection is usually caused by a virus leptospires from strain (serovar) copenhageni canicola or that a group of sera ikterohemoragi. Besides strain Pomona, and Ballum grippotyphosa have been isolated from dogs in the United States.

Infections due to canicola or copenhageni known to attack many of the dog population. Strains of leptospirosis copenhageni often menyababkan type hemorrhage and jaundice. Brown rat is the main reservoir copenhageni in America, while the dog becomes a reservoir for strains of canicola.

Clinical symptoms of
The incubation period of 5-15 days and can be attacked by dogs of various ages.On a sudden illness symptoms that are seen are lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, fever 39.5 to 40.5 ° C and accompanied by mild conjunctivitis. In the next few days the temperature dropped sharply, the animal becomes depressed, difficult breathing and thirst. In most dogs, jaundice (yellowish) with various levels to be an early sign of disease.

Dogs who suffer from more severe depression would show a deep and muscular tremors accompanied the body temperature decreases slowly until it reaches a temperature of 36 ° C, vomiting and bloody diarrhea (gastroenteritis hemorrhage), acute nephritis, sunken eyes and conjunctival blood vessels filled with blood.
Death is usually caused by kidney failure and generally occurs 5-10 days after the onset of disease. Mortality reached 10%. Cases of chronic interstitial nephritis husband's dance with different levels.

Diagnosis of disease based on clinical symptoms and necropsy findings, histologist and serological examination.

Prevention and Treatment
To reduce the likelihood of contracting leptospires advised pet owners to control of rodents and dogs are always tied, caged and vaccinate every 6-8 months to provide a protective titer to the dogs who are at high risk such as hunting dogs, and dogs for show. Dogs are often in contact with wild animals vaccinated with antigen-containing bacteria grippotyphosa and Pomona.

Treatment with antibiotics for acute infections such as tetracycline, doxycyclin and streptomycin. Doxycyclin better than tetracycline is used in patients suffering from acute nephritis. Dehydration and acidosis were treated ith give 0.17 M lactate solution administered alone or together with a solution of dextrose and high doses of vitamin B.

CONTAGIOUS DOG ON HEPATITIS (Infectious Canine Hepatitis)

Infectious hepatitis in dogs has been widespread in the world, with symptoms ranging from mild fever and the damming of the mucous membrane to severe forms, depression, leucopenia, and increases the apparent length of time frozen blood.

Infectious Canine Hepatitis Canine adenoid virus is Caused by a virus-1 (CAV-1). These viruses Including DNA viruses, no antigenic air envelope and CAV-2 are related to the Causes of infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs.

Clinical symptoms of
Hepatitis contagious fever symptoms Vary from mild to lethal. The incubation period is 4-9 days. Symptoms include fever above 40 ° C and Lasts 1-6 days, usually is biphasic, tachycardia, and leucopenia Occurred. Other symptoms of apathy, anorexia, thirst, conjunctivitis, serous relearn of the nose and eyes, Sometimes accompanied by stomach pain, vomiting also can occur as well as subcutaneous edema was found the head, neck and chest.

Intravascular coagulation (disseminated) is a common and Important in the pathogenesis of disease. Respiratory symptoms are usually not seen in dogs with ICH.
In the dog recovered, usually eat right but slow growth of the body. Seven to ten days after the acute symptoms began to disappear, about 25% of dogs will recover WHO experience clouding (opacity) of the cornea and may disappear spontaneously.

Diagnosis is determined by the incidence of bleeding and sudden increase of the length of time frozen blood. Diagnosis is confirmed by virus isolation, or found immonoflourescens inclusion bodies are characteristic of liver cells.

Prevention and Treatment
Blood transfusions may be Necessary in dogs with severe, besides an additional 5% dextrose in isotonic saline should be administered intravenously. At the time of frozen blood any dog slow, subcutaneous infusion of fluids is very Dangerous.

Such broad-spectrum antibiotics can be given as tetracycline during tooth development (fetus before birth, new birth, the early stages of birth) can cause discoloration of the teeth and this drug should not be given to the dog before permanent teeth grow.

To Prevent this disease may benefit from vaccination and the vaccine is Often combined with other vaccines. Immunization against ICH is recommended at the time of Immunization against distemper dogs.

How To Train Your Dog Fast

"My dog did not obey when called". "My dog barking continue to the point That the neighbors complained." "My dog always jumps at me and our guests." In this case, the frustrated dog owner asked, "What should I do?"

Perhaps, the answer is to Provide basic obedience training to your dog, teach him to obey simple commands. Of course, to give the best results when training your dog is still small. But old dogs can learn. Marcos a professional dog trainer in Mexico, said, "Our youngest dog trainer was four months old, and the oldest of five years. But I've taught basic obedience to dogs That have been aged ten years."

Dogs are intelligent animals. They have been Trained to track drugs and explosives, Helping people with disabilities, and carry out missions of search and rescue. Well, how you can train your dog to obey him?

The nature of congenital

First of all, you need to know the dog's innate nature. As with wolves, dogs instinctively live in groups under one leader. You Consider your family dog as a group, and he must understand That you are the leader.

In a wolf pack, the leader will choose the highest and warmest place to sleep. He juaga eat before the others. So, if your dog is allowed to sleep in your bunk, or up to the furniture, he will conclude That he was the leader. The same thing can Happen if he was given a piece of food at the time you're eating.

Even your dog can be taught from childhood That he is Beneath you. How? Try to keep her face until she turned away. Another great form of exercise is rubbing his belly while he was lying, Because It put him in a subordinate position. If your dog is misbehaving and acting up while you still say "Stop", Trying to ignore him and leave the room.

If your dog obey your commands, it was a sign he recognizes That you are the leader. If you as a leader, your dog can conclude That he is equal to or higher than you, and this can affect Their behavior.

How To Teach Simple Commands

To teach the basic commands to your dog, you need a collar, leash, and a myriad of patience. One user suggested:

Give simple commands with a single word.
Display the action you want.
Immediately praise when he does it.
Your tone is more Important than your words. A command must be pitched firmly, and praise should be happy and warm tone.

Physical punishment, Such as hitting or kicking, is not required. "I simply say 'Stop' and sharply higher for the dog to know that I am not happy with his behavior," said Marcos, the coach of the quotation at the beginning. He added, "Dogs are smart enough to distinguish whether you are being praised or scolded."

If you have to act Tougher, hold the neck and shake gently, saying "Stop". Warning should be given during or Immediately after the dog was doing something That is not in want of his. Remember, a dog will not know why he was mad a few minutes or hours after his or her delinquency. He also cannot understand why his actions and allowed Sometimes not. So, you have to be consistent.

The most basic command is "Sit!" If your dog understands this command, you can control it if he Becomes too excited. For example, you can tell him to sit when he began to jump to the guests. To teach your dog to sit, attach a rope, and gave orders That his body while holding the back of his head down and pull up gently using a rope. Then, Immediately praise. Repeat these steps until your dog to obey. to teach your dog to REMAIN seated, use the command "Quiet!" while standing in front of her and stretch your hand to him with the palm facing down. If he moves, say "Stop" and return him to the starting position. Repeat this command, and praise your dog when he remained seated for a time. If he obeyed the order, he sat Extend time and also the distance Between you and your dog gradually.

The best way to teach your dog to come closer is to use a long rope and pull it gently while giving the command "Come!" As he approached you, step back as he continued to praise him. Not long before he will obey you without Needing to be drawn with a strap. If your dog is struggling and not willing to obey the command "Come!", Call and ran away. Typically, dogs will instinctively chase.

Be careful: Do not ever use the word "here" Reasons for bad, like to scold. Your dog must learn to obey the command That "Come" will bring pleasurable results. If you teach this command with a temper tantrum, your dog will conclude That the command is not fun and should be avoided.

You can also teach your dog to walk beside you, not ahead or behind. For that, use a chain of exercise and a short rope. Granted the dog on your left side and then give the command "Go!" While stepping with the left foot. If he tries ahead of you or behind, the rope Quickly tapping patting your left knee and say "feet”. Praise when he obeyed.

How to train your dog not to jump up at you? The first method step back while giving the command "Get back!" And then commanded "Sit!" Another method is to capture both front legs and advanced toward him while repeating the command "Get back!" Praise when he complied.

Faithful Companions

Remember, dogs are gregarious animals. If too long locked up, he will Become hyperactive, constantly barking, and destructive. With proper training, your dog can be loyal friends a fun-not to be bullies.


The best treatment is a sick puppy to the vet visit. Ignoring the symptoms of the disease can cause serious illness. After undergoing appropriate treatment, make sure you use all the good efforts to help your puppy recover from the condition.

Doing Maintenance Diet
You can take advice from a specialist dog on a diet should be given to the sick puppy. You also need to keep a tight schedule for the amount of food and drinkenough so that the health condition of your puppy back to normal.

maintain Hygiene
Make sure that you keep your dog clean and also keep the area neat and clean. Clean your dog's eyes and ears on a regular basis and maintain a healthy coat and skin. pet feces should be removed and the dust should be washed to avoid the presence of microorganisms around our pets. Make sure that pets do not bite, because it can transmit the disease to other dogs at home.

Took a walk
Spend more time to take your dog for a walk, would just make sure not to fatigue. One of the points a puppy care is to make your dog exercise regularly, as recommended by your doctor.

Love is the panacea
Just like us, sick children will always want company; your pet is sick you may also want along with a longer time than usual. Providing a special time for your puppy will make them feel loved and pampered. This is one of the most effective way to see your dog recover from an illness.

Do not forget to check your puppy, despite showing signs of recovery. In fact, regular inspection is a good practice to prevent your puppy from getting sick.
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