Canine parvovirus THE DOG


Canine parvovirus is a disease in dogs That Is Important Because It Causes of high mortality in the population and cause high economic losses, ESPECIALLY in the commercial dog breeding and animal husbandry.

The disease is Caused by Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Including within the family Parvoviridae. CPV is transmissible virus without an envelope, has a single-chain nucleic acid, the positive polarization and a diameter of 20-28 nm.

Disease transmission is usually played through two channels, namely the mouth, anus and the placental barrier. After experiencing some replication in primary lymphoid organs as thymus , the virus then spread to Various organs through the Bloodstream, Such as the tonsils and small intestine with great severity in the lymphoid organs.

Experiments in the laboratory, viremia can be detected on day 1 and 2 Followed by viremia after infection of day-to-3 to-5 post-infection. Virus excretion usually starts on day-3 post-infection accompanied by the appearance of antibodies on day 4 and reached a maximum concentration at day-7 post-infection. Increased serum antibody has a huge impact on the reduction of virus excretion and recovery of individual health.

Geographical Distribution
CFV infections in dogs are found in many countries in the world, since the incidence of outbreaks in Australia and the United States in mid-1978.

Modes of Transmission
Transmission through oral-anal pathway is most common, the which may be the result of contact with contaminated materials Such as cages, clothes, feces and soil. In experimental infections can also be generated through the mouth, intubation, nasal passages, blood vessels and intra-uterine.

Morbidity and Mortality
CPV enteritis Generally high morbidity but low mortality. In young dogs the mortality can reach 10-12% or 50%. In the adult dog 1-2%.
At the CPV myocarditis in the early emergence reached 50%, reduction in morbidity and mortality from CPV myocarditis Caused by high titers of antibodies in pregnant animals That may Prevent them from infection. The more the parent WHO has a high antibody titer then the fewer cases of infection arising in young dogs.

Clinical symptoms of
Clinical symptoms the the which may Arise from the disease known as dengue two types of enteritis and myocarditis nonsupuratif. Sudden death in dogs younger than 8 weeks is the most common clinical symptoms found in cases of acute nonsuppurative myocarditis. Sub-acute heart failure accompanied by respiratory problems and is Often accompanied by death within 24-48 hours can occur in dogs over the age of 8 weeks. In dogs teens and adults can occur with congestive heart failure the heart muscle damage.

Based on severity, CPV enteritis Divided into 3 types of moderate, acute and Parachute. Diarrhea and vomiting accompanied by a distinctive odor and bleeding is a symptom That Often found in most people with dogs. Other symptoms of lethargy, Decreased appetite, leucopenia, fever and dehydration.
In Patients per acute death can occur Immediately, while the case is Likely to occur within Several weeks of healing. Overall infection symptoms are similar to ataxic syndrome in cats, but it Happens very rare.

The disease is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, pathological, identification and determination of virus-specific antibody.
In the laboratory, virus identification is Carried out through the use of existing Various methods Such as histopathology, virus isolation in cell cultures, hem agglutination tests, immune dyes, electron microscopy, ELISA test and molecular breeding.

While the serological methods used to diagnose CPV barriers include hem agglutination test, radial hemolytic, neutralization, fluorescence, radio immune, complement fixation and immune precipitation and ELISA.

Prevention and Eradication
Excessive diarrhea and vomiting is very bad for the animals affect people with CPV enteritis. Often dogs die of dehydration. Provision of physiologic saline solution and sugar will help the patient to pass through a critical period in the which usually Lasts 2-5 days.

Provision of vitamins and good nutrition, the placement of Patients in the room is warm and comfortable as well as giving antibiotics to Overcome a secondary infection is recommended.
Prevention is done through the disinfection of contaminated equipment and materials, improving the nutritional status and health of animals as well as the implementation of Immunization programs on a regular basis. The use of formaldehyde, phenol and Na-hypochlorite for Fumigation or spraying can Reduced new infections.

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